By Dietitian – Nutritionist Danae Petropoulou
OLIVE OIL POLYPHENOLS AND THEIR ACTION AS PROMISING FACTORS AGAINST ALZHEIMER DISEASE
The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean Diet in preventing diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, age-related cognitive impairment, and aging are well known. Many of these positive qualities are the result of eating fruits, seeds, legumes and vegetables. But also olive oil which is the main dietary fat in the Mediterranean countries, and the main source of monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as an important source of beneficial polyphenols and other antioxidants. Many pieces of evidence point to extra virgin olive oil as one of the most valuable ingredients in the Mediterranean Diet. It is a promising tool to reduce the effects of adverse vascular factors that are responsible for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease and therefore can be used for possible prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. The researchers base their hypothesis on meta-analyzes of epidemiological data, on numerous experimental studies and on a comprehensive review of the mechanisms of action of extra virgin olive oil and its components in the prevention of vascular diseases. In addition, extra virgin olive oil has been shown to have positive effects in experimental animal models as well.
VASCULAR FACTORS IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE
The proposal for the use of extra virgin olive oil in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, comes from the data that emerge from the last three decades, which confirm the critical role of vascular factors in the pathogenesis and clinical expression of the disease. These data led to the conclusion that one third of all new cases of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease could be prevented by timely and adequate control of vascular risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, diabetes. Three international conferences have concluded that extra virgin olive oil improves a significant number of vascular risk factors such as lipoprotein profile, blood pressure, obesity and glucose metabolism in both healthy individuals and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. endothelial function by regulating the release of nitric oxide (NO), & eicosanoids (prostaglandins and leukotrienes).
OLIVE OIL INGREDIENTS THAT HELP PREVENT ALZHEIMER
Phenolic compounds are the main antioxidants found in extra virgin olive oil and are eleuropein, oleocanthal, securoids and lignans. The researchers presented data to explain the mechanism by which oleocanthal causes a decrease in β-amyloid levels in the brain, the deposition of which is the main cause of the disease. Essentially, oleocanthal has been shown to induce the production of two protein molecules that play a key role in the removal of β-amyloid from the brain through the upregulation of P-gp protein and lipoprotein-associated protein-1 protein. LDL (LRP1), the major Aβ transport protein, in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Two other phenolic components of EVOO, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol have also been studied in Alzheimer’s disease. Tyrosol has a neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia but both have strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, to date, the phenolic activities of extra virgin olive oil against the disease can be grouped into several main categories: (i) inhibition of amyloidogenic A formation, (ii) promotion of A peptide clearance, (iii) inhibition of toxic A accumulation peptides and amyloid, (iv) reduction of inflammation, (v) activation of autophagy, (vi) stimulation of neurogenesis and (vii) activation of antioxidant defense.
The researchers therefore suggest that extra virgin olive oil is a promising food to alleviate the effects of adverse vascular factors and can also be used to prevent the late onset of Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, it is important to conduct studies in a controlled clinical trial to confirm its beneficial effect.
Danae Petropoulou was born and raised in Athens. He studied at the Department of Dietetics – Nutrition of Harokopio University of Athens while he also attended a postgraduate seminar “Health Coaching” for Health Professionals of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. Attends scientific conferences and continues to be informed about new developments in the field of Dietetics. She prepared her Thesis with “Excellent” and the topic is the Evaluation of Carotenoid Determination Methods in Mediterranean Foods. He is currently collaborating as an assistant researcher in a Doctoral Thesis of the School of Physical Education and Sports Science of EKPA. She successfully completed her annual Internship at G. Gennimatas General Hospital, Diet Office and the Non-Profit Organization “WISE GREECE”. Since then she has worked in Dietetic offices, in Polyclinic, while now she works as a Self-employed, but also as a Responsible Dietitian of the Ergometric Fitness Nutrition Support Center “Ergo-Fitness” in Glyfada and as a Nutritionist in Chef George Tsouli. Nutrition. Her philosophy is that by doing Nutrition, “I take care-appreciate-love myself”! For her, the Nutrition industry gives her the opportunity through her personal page, to pass on her knowledge and experience to the world to advise them to improve their quality of life.
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